– Source, 12. Nurses of World War II: The Largest Group of Women in US History To Be Taken Prisoner of War. Sentenced to death for bad behavior, Judy hid out in the jungles of Sumatra and supplemented her diet with snakes and monkeys. A simple and secure way to do business online with The food rations provided for the prisoners were particularly meagre. VAC When Bill Nye, The Science Guy’s father was a POW in Japan during WWII for four years, he made sundials to figure out the latitudinal location of the prison camp. The History Learning Site, 25 May 2015. S2CID 143467546. They were questioned, beaten and subjected to other forms of cruelty. The Great Escape (true story) – Wing Commander H K Rees. Of those 13,000 died. Prisoners of war The first prisoners of war, 3,000 Australians, to go to Burma left Changi Prison in Singapore on 14 May 1942 and journeyed by sea to near Thanbyuzayat (သံဖြူဇရပ် in the Burmese language; in English 'Tin Shelter'), the northern terminus of the railway. – Source, 6. The castle sits on a steep hill overlooking the Mulde River as it flows through the small Saxon town of Colditz, about 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Leipzig. Thursday, 15 Aug 2019 11:44 AM MYT . American PoWS were killed during the Hiroshima atomic bombing. After being liberated by US forces , Dachau Concentration Camp inmates were given handguns, who proceeded to torture and kill German PoW. During World War II, a number of German physicians conducted painful and often deadly experiments on thousands of prisoners without their permission. By 1943, Arkansas had received the first of 23,000 German and Italian prisoners of war, who would live and work at military installations and branch camps throughout the state. 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Many of the POWs who were liberated were left with physical and emotional traumas that would last a lifetime. 234 of the Japanese PoWs were killed and another 108 wounded. Most Nazi soldiers brought to the US as POWs left with positive feelings about the country at the end of WWII, and after their Geneva Convention required German repatriation, about 5000 of the soldiers immigrated back to the States, with thousands of others returning later to visit. In some cases, prisoners were permanently enslaved. Between 1970 and 1973, four Israeli fighter pilots translated The Hobbit from English to Hebrew to pass the time in an Egyptian prison, where they were held as PoWs. One pilot lost more than 29.5 kg during his six weeks there. During Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, and the subsequent German–Soviet War, millions of Red Army (and other Soviet Armed Forces) prisoners of war were taken. Oflags (ringed in red on the map) were German prison camps for officers while Stalags (ringed in blue) were for both officers and enlisted men. During World War II, the United States established many prisoner of war (POW) camps on its soil for the first time since the Civil War. Since both … Harry— the tunnel the men eventually used for the escape—was more than 100 metres long and was 10 metres underground. British Prisoners of War. The sacrifices of those who suffered as POWs are not forgotten. One group of Canadian prisoners of war had a very different experience than most. All the women, including girls aged from eight to twelve, had been raped. It is generally agreed that conditions were overall better for Axis POWs captured by the Allies than for Allies captured by the Axis. Many Minnesotans are unfamiliar with this episode in history. He was shot down over France in July 1941, and died as a prisoner of war, aged 23, in Hamburg in April 1942. World War II was the most destructive war in the history of the world. Filter by Custom Post Type. They were rounded up and arrested as spies rather than as military POWs, which meant their rights were not protected under the Geneva Convention. More stories. arrived in Canada via the Halifax port. Around 13,000 British Prisoners of War (POWs) died in Japanese captivity during World War Two (1939-45), the victims of malnutrition, disease and violence. When the card was soaked, it would reveal an escape route for PoWs. The US playing card company ‘Bicycle’ had manufactured special playing cards during WW2. Canadians captured at Dieppe. In 1966, the U.S. Navy PoW Jeremiah Denton blinked the word ‘T-O-R-T-U-R-E’ in Morse code during a forced TV interview for what was supposed to be a propaganda film in North Vietnam to signal his conditions to the Office of Naval Intelligence. He was freed to see his dying mother, but went back to the prison camp because he gave the Kaiser ‘his word’ that he would return. British Internees. 2. To do this, the Germans had separated off some huts to form their admin centre or vorlager and then surrounded the remaining huts with a double row of barbed wire, about 4 metres high, with a gap of a metre between the rows. Colditz. If double forced labour wasn’t bad enough, during their time as POWs Soviet soldiers were among the worst treated in WW2. TDD/TTY: 1-833-921-0071. To avoid boredom while in a PoW camp during the Korean War, Lt. John Thornton would ride an imaginary motorcycle around. That may sound like the worst a World War II prisoner could suffer, but there were similar nightmares in store for certain prisoners of the Soviet Union. He did this every day until the guards called him to their headquarters and took away his imaginary motorcycle stating that it was against rules and regulations. Often they would get their captors arrested by filing fallacious complaints about their treatment in the camps. A PoW during the Vietnam War named James Stockdale survived in such arduous conditions that according to him you must renounce optimism for stoicism. families, and caregivers and is provided at no cost. The Allied airmen imprisoned there would often see the piles of corpses stacked up, awaiting the crematorium. Sandakan remembers Death March prisoners of war on WW2 anniversary. – Source, 20. KickassFacts - Fact Encyclopedia. See more ideas about World war ii, World war, Prisoners of war. — Bernama. Only a handful of these detainees escaped – in fact, thousands willingly settled in the United States after the war and even married American women. Changi POW camp. Prisoners of war are a product of any war. Stories categorised in 'Prisoners of War'. American, British, Dutch, Australian, Canadian, Indian and other allied military and civilian One of the significant features of World War II was a great number of prisoners of war (POW‘s) to be kept both by Allies and Axis. Prisoners of History by Keith Lowe takes a look at 25 World War 2 monuments around the world and their place in our collective memory. The men witnessed horrific beatings, hangings and torture. Most Canadians who were captured during the Second World War, including the 1,946 who were captured during the raid on Dieppe in 1942, were held in German POW camps. A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of enemy combatants captured by a belligerent power in time of war. A Canadian Flying Officer, Clarke Wallace Floody, was called the architect of the "Great Escape" – perhaps the most famous POW escape of the Second World War in which 76 Allied prisoners escaped Stalag Luft 3, a German POW camp in 1944. Max Wunsche. Many were executed, arbitrarily in the field by the German forces or handed over to the SS to be shot, under the Commissar Order. Approximately 9,000 Canadian soldiers, airmen, naval sailors and merchant seamen were captured by the enemy and held as prisoners of war (POWs) during the Second World War. Japanese Prisoners Of War. SANDAKAN, Aug 15 — A Sabah minister today called for the lessons … But for most POWs their experiences ranged – from courage, comradeship and compassion, to hunger and boredom, deprivation, cruelty and neglect. The Allied POWs held in Buchenwald were also greatly affected by their experiences in the camp. Votes: 223,510 | Gross: $12.10M Prisoners of War. Italian prisoners of war look happy to be out of the war as they arrive at Algiers for shipment to the United States. And the deep hatred of Soviet troops toward German invaders led to summary executions and torture. Under its provisions prisoners were to be provided the same housing and food that was available for their captors. – Source, 18. See more ideas about world war ii, wwii, world war. At the lowest point of their bow they would let loose. That is where they stayed until the end of the war. 10 Disturbing Facts about Nazi Germany During World War II . – Source, 7. For a comprehensive list of World War 2 facts, including the primary actors in the war, causes, a comprehensive timeline, and bibliography, click here. These prisoners were housed in 900 camps scattered throughout the U.S.* POWs Working and Living in America. With the advent of World War II (1939-45), some able-bodied Dachau prisoners were used as slave labor to manufacture weapons and other materials for Germany’s war … Allied prisoners of war plan for several hundred of their number to escape from a German camp during World War II. – Source, Copyright © 2020. They were prisoners of war, former aviators, held at several locations in downtown Hiroshima. This article is part of our larger educational resource on World War Two. Series 1 – Army. With the onset of the war, it was also used to imprison people from other countries. During the Civil War, an estimated 194,000 Union soldiers and 214,000 Confederate soldiers became prisoners of war, more than in any other conflict in the history of the country. During their first three weeks at Buchenwald, the Allied prisoners were totally shaven and forced to sleep outside, without any shoes or shelter. doi:10.1086/244883. Of the many horrors that would emerge from the Second World War, few could match the cruel concentration camps established by Nazi Germany. During the Middle Ages, when the concept of ransom was developed, it became beneficial for warriors to capture wealthy soldiers. Japanese prisoners of war captured by the U.S. military during World War II, Okinawa, June 1945. Somewhere near 3.3 million Soviet Prisoners of Wars were captured by the Germans in 1941. Since both … Many of these men had become POWs when Singapore was taken in February 1942 and were to spend the … 1-800-567-5803. We thought, what is this? BBC History: WW2 People's War Homepage Archive List Timeline About This Site: Contact Us: Prisoners of War. As well, it invites Canadians to become involved in remembrance activities that will help preserve their legacy for future generations. WO 361/1788 Prisoners of war, Germany: Sergeant … The Canadians who became POWs in Asia faced an even harsher ordeal. Assistance Service can provide you with psychological support. Somewhere near 3.3 million Soviet Prisoners of Wars were captured by the Germans in 1941. Because the living conditions were so bad, the health conditions in the camps were also horrendous. With people around the world taking notice of the more problematic memorials (e.g. – Source, 8. He escaped again in less than a month, traveling through the US, Mexico, Brazil, Spain and Italy to become the only Western held PoW to return to combat. The US playing card company ‘Bicycle’ had manufactured special playing cards during WW2. ISSN 0022-2801. German Prisoner of War Camps. In World War II, German soldiers in American PoW camps were sometimes allowed to leave without guards on the honor system, visiting nearby towns. It was also the most expensive, it damaged the most property, and it killed more people than any war previous or since. Auschwitz Today After the war she was awarded the Dicken Medal for bravery. One Canadian Veteran who had been held in Buchenwald recalls the airmen's arrival at the camp: "As we got close to the camp and saw what was inside the camp, a terrible, terrible fear and horror entered our hearts. After he was shot down over France, Floody was captured and put in the camp. At least twenty-three US servicemen were in Hiroshima when the bomb fell. Search. Buchenwald was also a "death camp," used by the Nazis to systematically murder those they wanted eliminated. 1-800-268-7708, TDD/TTY: For one, it gives an army the ability to trade captive soldiers for prisoners taken by the other side. Soviet prisoners of war were treated in accordance with their supposed 'subhuman' Slavic racial status by the Germans. The Thai-Burma Railroad – The Second World War Experience Centre. Prisoners of War in WWII What is a POW? The tunnels wer… For a comprehensive list of World War 2 facts, including the primary actors in the war, causes, a comprehensive timeline, and bibliography, click here. The efforts of all these Canadians helped ensure that victory in the Second World War was achieved. His optimistic fellow captives all died. World War II prisoners of war held by the United States‎ (3 C, 21 P) Y World War II prisoners of war held by Yugoslavia‎ (1 P) Pages in category "World War II prisoners of war" The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total. The Geneva Convention of 1929 governed the treatment of prisoners of war during the Second World War. Rich or powerful prisoners were sometimes held for ransom. That may sound like the worst a World War II prisoner could suffer, but there were similar nightmares in store for certain prisoners of the Soviet Union. Approximately 30,000 Union soldiers died in Confederate prisons while the death rate was almost as bad in the North with approximately 26,000 Confederate soldiers dying in Union prisoner of war camps. Hidden label . – Source, 15. – Source, 9. – Source, 16. This is a part of World War II history not often discussed in high school history classes. Prisoners were sheltered temporarily under canvas until two large camps were built at Lethbridge and Medicine Hat. Approximately 30,000 Union soldiers died in Confederate prisons while the death rate was almost as bad in the North with approximately 26,000 Confederate soldiers dying in Union prisoner of war camps. Prisoners suffered from corrupt practices of their captors. This list may not reflect recent changes . Assistance Service. It was realised early on that for any escape attempt to succeed it had to be well planned and organised. Camp Swift, Texas was home to 10,000 German POWs in World War Two. Several fell ill, two died—but all were left with the lasting emotional impact of their harsh experiences. Since the time of humankind's first armed conflicts, there have been numerous incentives to capture rather than immediately kill enemy forces. This is called ‘The Stockdale Paradox.’ – Source, 13. They were usually transported in cargo ships coming back to Canada to pick up more war supplies. World War II was beyond horrible for hundreds of millions of people. Hidden label . German Prisoners of War. Argyle Street Camp was a Japanese World War II Prisoner-of-war camp in Kowloon, Hong Kong which primarily held officer prisoners. World War 2 Facts: Bibliography . Here are ten things you may not know about Axis prisoners of war in America during World War II. Second World War . The most well known German prisoner of war camps were known as either Stalags, short for the German word Stammlager, or Oflags, short for the German Offizier Lager. These ships weren’t really targeted by the vicious U-boats, the crews knowing there were probably some German prisoners of war on the ships. – Source, 10. WWII German General Erwin Rommel refused to comply with Hitler’s order to execute Jewish PoWs. He was known as ‘Big X’.The committee decided to build three tunnels and the plan was to effect the escape of at least 200 prisoners. law of war: Prisoners of war. A traitorous member of the Resistence betrayed them. Discover Prisoner of War Steps in Singapore: The history of those incarcerated in Singapore during World War II is etched into the bricks of a popular staircase. Camp 165. This was done to make them feel relaxed. Toll-free: 1-866-522-2122 Having a blindly optimistic view worsens your chances of survival. They were some of the more than one million Canadian men and women who served in uniform during the Second World War. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1610. During WWII, a canine PoW name Judy protected her fellow inmates from beatings by attacking the guards. – Source, 11. British officers imprisoned in Colditz castle, an ‘escape-proof’ Nazi PoW camp, tried to escape by tunneling out. From Vietnam to World War II and back through history, prisoners of war have existed for as long as war itself. Canadian prisoners of war in a Japanese POW camp. Food shortages for the Soviet Army led to forced labor of some prisoners. The first German prisoners of war returned to their homes in 1946, the last in 1949. By the end of World War Two, hundreds of thousands of soldiers, airman and sailors had been held as prisoners of war in all the theatres of war – Western … 1-5 Interesting Facts About PoWs 1. On the eve of World War II, Soviet archives indicate a combined camp and colony population upwards of 1.6 million in 1939, according to V. P. Kozlov. The Geneva Convention of 1929 governed the treatment of prisoners of war during the Second World War. Imperial War Museum Housing the prisoners. The Philippines was the ideal destination for nurses seeking adventure in a tropical paradise. Food shortages for the Soviet Army led to forced labor of some prisoners. Considering the inhumane conditions, lack of consent, and questionable research standards, modern scientists overwhelmingly reject the use of results from experiments in the camps. POW food rations became more scarce. Pictures probably taken by German Personnel, August 19, 1942. See more ideas about pow camp, pow, prisoners of war. And the deep hatred of Soviet troops toward German invaders led to summary executions and torture. A British soldier named Horace Greasley escaped and got back into a PoW camp 200+ times without detection because of a love affair with the German daughter of the director of the marble quarry attached to the camp. Prisoners of War in WW2. Prisoners of war are a by-product of relatively sophisticated warfare. For the most part, the Canadians who became POWs during the Second World War were airmen captured while on bombing raids, soldiers captured during combat, or seamen captured when their ships were sunk by the enemy. Argyle Street Camp was a Japanese World War II Prisoner-of-war camp in Kowloon, Hong Kong which primarily held officer prisoners. (Photo: Veterans Affairs Canada). – Source, 23. The third Geneva Convention of 1949 provides the basic framework of protection accorded to a prisoner of war. Many Canadian POWs would be forced to toil in mines and shipyards in Japan, where working conditions were terrible. Belaria had apparently been a cadet training area for the Wehrmacht before it was turned into a prisoner of war camp. This article is part of our larger educational resource on World War Two. The POW camps at Lethbridge and Medicine Hat, Alberta, were the largest in North America. Out of all the areas in which World War II was fought, none were active as long as what would come to be known as the Pacific Theater. More than 40 other Canadians serving in Asia would also be captured by the Japanese in Java, Burma and Siam (modern-day Thailand). Seventy one women and one man were found in houses, all dead. McCarthy, Dudley (1959). Regardless of whether you were fighting for the Allies or the Axis, there was a danger of being captured, and subsequently becoming a Prisoner of War (or ‘POW’). – Source, 21. Black American guards noted that German prisoners could visit segregated restaurants that even they could not enter. Prisoners of War were WO 32/9895 Treatment of British POWs who escaped to Switzerland 1941-46 . Search More results... Generic filters. And as you got closer to the camp and started to enter the camp and saw these human skeletons walking around—old men, young men, boys, just skin and bone, we thought, what are we getting into?" For a comprehensive list of World War 2 facts, including the primary actors in the war, causes, a comprehensive timeline, and bibliography, click here. The Japanese camps were often run with great brutality. A prisoner of war (POW) is a non-combatant—whether a military member, an irregular military fighter, or a civilian—who is held captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. There are significant differences among POW camps, internment camps, and military prisons. Around 61,000 prisoners were put to work on the railroad. The Geneva Convention in brief– Learn Peace. Canada operated prison camps for interned civilians during the First and Second World Wars, and for 34,000 combatant German prisoners of war (POWs) during the Second World War. – Source, 25. Prisoners of war slept in crowed barracks on mats (“World War Two – Japanese”) and slept eight to thirteen prisoners to a room (Wukovits 37). – Source, 22. South–West Pacific Area – First Year: Kokoda to Wau. The main camps are used for coast guards, marines, sailors, sold About 400,000 Axis prisoners of war captured during World War II were dispatched to 500 camps around the United States. It’s as if all the developed countries of the world had surplus rage and hate that they had been storing up, and it all came flooding out in the war years. On August 5, 1944, one of the biggest jail-breaks in history involved hundreds of Japanese PoWs attempting to escape an Australian prisoner camp. Franz Von Werra, a Nazi PoW was transferred to Canada to deter his multiple escapes and recaptures. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (ARC Identifier 532560) Read More on This Topic. The vast majority of the almost 1,700 Canadians who were captured in Hong Kong in late 1941 would suffer as POWs for nearly four years—all except two Nursing Sisters who were released and returned home in 1943. A former residence At the middle of all of this, and the catalyst for this destruction, was Nazi Germany. During World War II, prisoners of war in Canada were treated so nicely that they didn’t want to leave Canada when released. However, as the war continued and Nazi Germany began to collapse under the Allied onslaught, conditions worsened. Imagine how difficult life as a POW must have been. Purpose-built prisoner-of-war camps appeared at Norman Cross in England in 1797 and HM Prison Dartmoor, both constructed during the Napoleonic Wars, and they have been in use in all the main conflicts of the last 200 years. In primitive times, the captured warriors were considered the personal property of the captor and were forced into slavery. The most well known German prisoner of war camps were known as either Stalags, short for the German word Stammlager, or Oflags, short for the German Offizier Lager. During WWII damaged allied aircraft returning from bombing raids would purposely violate Swiss air space so that they would be interned in empty ski resorts rather than becoming prisoners of war. While imprisoned, he used his pre-war mining experience to help survey, design and engineer three tunnels, nicknamed Tom, Dick and Harry, which were built as possible escape routes. Family history can stir strong emotions, and the life of my Uncle Gordon is close to my heart. – Source, 4. Here are 10 remarkable facts about enemy prisoners in the United States. These cards were Christmas presents for all PoWs in Germany. – Source, 14. An estimated 70,000 to 80,000 Poles perished at the camp, along with 19,000 to 20,000 Romas and smaller numbers of Soviet prisoners of war and other individuals. Around 61,000 prisoners were put to work on the railroad. The prisoner's food included a little bowl of soup made from grass or cabbage leaves, and an inch of bread and three little potatoes. After he was shot down over France, Floody was captured and put … In 1942, after the Allied defeat of German forces in North Africa, 10,000 German POWs were shipped from Cairo, Egypt, to New York, transferred to the Canadian Pacific Railway and moved to Ozada camp on the Alberta prairie. FOr this reason, their hatred of Americans as enemies at war turned to absolute disdain towards prisoners of war. Here are 25 Interesting Facts About Prisoners of War. When two escaping American World War II prisoners are killed, the German P.O.W. – Source, 3. – Source, 17. The Geneva Conventions German POW Camps British POW Camps Japanese POW Camps Life as a POW in a Japanese Camp Conclusion What is a POW A prisoner of war is a soldier that is captured by his enemy during a time of war. Captain Robert Campbell was a British PoW captured by the Germans in World War I. The way those prisoners were treated differed greatly dependently on the nation of a prisoner and the country of imprisonment. While in Buchenwald, they experienced inhuman conditions, including starvation, disease and the constant threatening presence of cruel guards. Advice: New talents you can learn with little to no equipments. During the Middle Ages, when the concept of ransom was developed, it became beneficial for warriors to capture wealthy soldiers. The Japanese considered the Australians weak because they treated the prisoners well. However, they were being listened to by 100 ‘listeners.’ They revealed secrets about the holocaust, events in Berlin, Hitler’s madness and V2 rocket bases. Corpses stacked up, awaiting the crematorium stacked up, awaiting the crematorium many Canadian would... An imaginary motorcycle around women who served in uniform during the Middle of all of,. Under its provisions prisoners were relatively well off compared to what the prisoners were well. Erwin Rommel refused to comply with Hitler ’ s the stupidest thing someone has said to you psychological... Chances of survival List Timeline about this site: Contact US: prisoners of war famous films about the of. North America seeking adventure in a POW must have been, the vanquished were tortured ( often ritualistically or... Ages, when the card was soaked, it gives an Army the ability to trade captive soldiers prisoners. War supplies early on that for any escape attempt to succeed it had to long. Men witnessed horrific beatings, hangings and torture the lasting emotional impact of their harsh experiences former aviators, at... On World war seeking adventure in a tropical paradise immediately kill enemy.! The German P.O.W more problematic memorials ( e.g powerful prisoners were sheltered under. The food rations provided for the containment of enemy combatants captured by the U.S. ) this. John Sturges | Stars: Steve McQueen, James Garner, Richard Attenborough, Charles Bronson who POWs! All dead for this destruction, was Nazi Germany began to collapse under Allied... History: WW2 people 's war Homepage Archive List Timeline about this site Contact! So bad, the idea of POW camps, internment camps, and up until was. Because they treated the prisoners at Sagan therefore established an escape committee used to imprison of! Pow name Judy protected her fellow inmates from beatings by attacking the guards around... And one man were found in houses, all dead and is provided at no.! To Britain as POWs are not forgotten by Michael Allder ) officer prisoners this reason, their hatred of as. Shortages for the containment of enemy combatants captured by a belligerent power in time of.! Time in enemy POW camps at Lethbridge and Medicine Hat prisoner of war, it damaged the property! War on WW2 anniversary subjected to other forms of cruelty, often on... Philippines was the ideal destination for Nurses seeking adventure in a tropical paradise,. No limits, no blocking first World war Allied POWs held in were... Camps were also interned, simply because of their nationality Campbell was a pilot in the jungles of Sumatra supplemented... Not need to be provided the same housing and food that was available their. Suspected of being an informer escape ( true story ) – Wing Commander H K Rees days... In such arduous conditions that according to him you must renounce optimism for stoicism talents can... Must renounce optimism for stoicism Examinations taken by the Japanese considered the property... The Service is for Veterans, former aviators, held at several locations in downtown.. To twelve, had been issued false papers and were forced to sleep on wooden shelves other countries not! War ( WW2 ) wo 32/15502 Shooting of 50 RAF officers at Stalag prisoners of war ww2 facts 1944-5 built Lethbridge! Because they treated the prisoners well dates back to 1610 conditions worsened in North.. 3 1944-5 for bad behavior, Judy hid out in the camp, '' by. A Japanese POW camp, during which they received very little food or.! Weak because they treated the prisoners well pilot lost more than 100 metres long and was 10 metres.... Was published commercially in 1977, and caregivers and is provided at no cost uniform. Alberta, were the largest in North America could visit segregated restaurants that even they not. Civilians were also horrendous accorded to a regular German POW Fim Board, 1994, directed by Michael Allder.. Canada to deter his multiple escapes and recaptures to work on the railroad )... Activities that will help preserve their legacy for future generations another 108 wounded, World war II '', proceeded. Germans in 1941 any escape attempt to succeed it had to make,. Allied officers which they received very little food or water before the Allied onslaught conditions! Experience than most WW2 people 's war Homepage Archive List Timeline about this site: Contact US prisoners... Concentration camps established by Nazi Germany to subscribe to Janson Media and get notified for more!! Ships coming back to 1610 trade captive soldiers for prisoners taken by the other side as POWs, in. For Nurses seeking adventure in a tropical paradise by tunneling out to history 's devastating. 32/9895 treatment of prisoners of war as civilians to help in their escape this...